Atiquipa was founded on January 2, 1857. “The hills and Taimara Atiquipa” Atiquipa District, Province of Caraveli, Department of Arequipa, are the remains of formations larger hills. In normal years, cover an area of 10,000 hectares, and in years when the event occurs the hills of El Niño extend to a total area of 30,000 hectares. The slopes of the coastal hills where they are located and Taimara Atiquipa is particularly pronounced altitudinal slope, which favors the formation of hills with an elevation from sea level to the top of the hill Cahuamarca (1,297 m). Atiquipa is of global importance for conservation of biodiversity at various levels: they are the largest remaining area of a unique ecosystem, containing specific habitats of the last forest hills, and host a high diversity of species, with a high degree of endemism (including six species that exist nowhere else on earth). As part Sechura Desert in Atiquipa, constitute a unique component of one of the driest deserts in the world, a region classified as “vulnerable” and “bioregionally important.”
During winter and spring of Peru, a thick fog coming in from the Pacific Ocean and covers the hills waving along the coast of Atiquipa, where it condenses and provides moisture that nourishes these patches of lush vegetation. This fog also gives support to local community members caught in the nets to collect aguapara drinking and irrigating crops. The hills are home to 350 species of plants. Of these, 44 are endemic including the almost extinct myrtle tree (Myrcianthes ferreyrae), three types of cactus (Eulychnia ritteri, Echinopsis chalaensis and Pygmaeocereus familiaris), and two types of bell flowers (Nolana inflata and Nolata aticoana). The most common species in the hills is the native tree known as Tara (Caesalpinia spinosa), whose pods and seeds are used to produce tannic acid and rubber for domestic and international markets.
Las Lomas Atiquipa
are being used by man for 5,000 years and they are numerous and important archaeological remains as the citadel of Cahuamarca, the administrative complex religious “Quebrada de la Vaca”, Los Corrales de Silaca, Las Terrazas agricultural Ocopa mocha and construction of Pueblo Viejo and Cerro Ayparipa Lloque, not to mention the Inca Trail.
In modern times, Las Lomas Atiquipa home to a rural community who cultivate 70 ha and due to overgrazing in the area and deforestation since ancient times have been desertified hills is why this area is facing a drought. The University of San Agustin de Arequipa in conjunction with the Community undertook a project to reforest part of the devastated area, which is why the construction of the catchers.
Las Lomas coast is a unique ecosystem in the world, work based on the uptake of water from the fog. The soils are clayey and slightly Atiquipa stony. Topographic relief is hilly, with slopes presence of strong gradient. It is the only site on the coast with a podzol soil type, which is considered a good agricultural land. In some sites . Atiquipa the podzol has a potential of 50 to 60 centimeters, after which there is clay that forms a kind of sponge, which reaches 4 to 5 feet deep.
Archaeology is a witness to an ancient water management
On the Peruvian coast, archaeological sites abound as evidence of ancient human presence. The most famous is the mysterious Nazca lines. Long before the Incas, many civilizations developed in this sector. The best known were the Paracas and Nazca. Located approximately 500 kilometers from Lima, Atiquipa also preserved numerous archaeological remains poorly understood. Within the hills (fog oasis), these sites are evidence of occupation by man for over 5000 years. These sites reveal a territorial organization and a complex water management. In the arid coast, the activity of the people was devoted to fishing.
In the fifteenth century, was from these shores of Atiquipa the riders arrived in Cuzco to 300 miles away to bring fresh fish to the Inca, in two days. Upstream fishing port, the hills allow an uptake of water mists. However, it appears that these civilizations had realized that agriculture was not possible directly in the hills of Atiquipa, instead of water uptake, but downstream. Indeed, they have found traces of irrigation systems from the hills to agricultural areas. Today, the terraces are still visible.
Less spectacular Nazca lines, the archeological sites contain precious Atiquipa knowledge of agriculture in the pre-Inca civilizations. We also show that the inhabitants of that time were the mountains of Kahuamarca whose archaeological remains can be found. Unfortunately, these places do not enjoy any national protection. They are exposed to looting and some areas are definitely destroyed by the passage of communication networks. An ecotourism project is underway in Atiquipa, placing value on these places, something will probably launch a dynamic conservation.
In Atiquipa you can find a very friendly people, open welcomes you to the stranger, you can enjoy a quiet isolated from the bustle of the world. Atiquipa has a very close contact with nature and its mysteries can delight of the best fruits and vegetables as well as their olives, olive oil, almonds and cream and other delicacies, you can see diversity of birds, and plants not well just look elsewhere.
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